There has been a lot of attention given to cognitive decline lately. As a 60+ woman, I say it’s about time!

Cognitive decline refers to cognitive abilities such as memory, attention, and problem-solving skills. While aging is a natural factor contributing to cognitive decline, several preventable causes can accelerate this process.

By identifying and addressing these factors, we can take proactive steps to maintain their cognitive health.

Here are 20 preventable causes of cognitive decline, supported by scientific research and expert opinions.

Poor Diet

A diet high in saturated fats, processed foods, and added sugars has been linked to cognitive decline. On the other hand, a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and omega-3 fatty acids has shown protective effects against cognitive decline.

Sedentary Lifestyle

Physical inactivity affects not only physical health but also cognitive function. Regular exercise improves blood flow to the brain, enhances memory, and promotes overall cognitive health.

Chronic Stress

Prolonged exposure to stress hormones can damage the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for memory formation. Managing stress through relaxation techniques, mindfulness, and engaging in stress-reducing activities is essential for preserving cognitive function.

Lack of Sleep

Sleep plays a vital role in consolidating memories and supporting cognitive function. Chronic sleep deprivation can impair attention, memory, and decision-making abilities. Prioritizing quality sleep and maintaining a consistent sleep schedule is crucial.


Smoking damages the cardiovascular system and increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Quitting smoking can significantly reduce this risk.

Excessive Alcohol Consumption

Excessive alcohol intake can lead to brain damage and cognitive impairment. Moderation or abstinence from alcohol is advised to maintain optimal cognitive health.

Brain Trauma

Head injuries, such as concussions, can have long-term consequences on cognitive function. Taking appropriate safety measures and seeking medical attention after a head injury is crucial.

Uncontrolled Diabetes

Diabetes affects blood vessels and increases the risk of cognitive decline. Managing blood sugar levels through a healthy diet, regular exercise, and medication, if required, is important for cognitive health.


High blood pressure is a risk factor for cognitive decline and vascular dementia. Lifestyle modifications, such as adopting a low-sodium diet and exercising regularly, can help control blood pressure.


Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline. Maintaining a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular exercise is crucial for cognitive health.

Social Isolation

Lack of social interaction and isolation has been linked to cognitive decline. Engaging in social activities, maintaining relationships, and participating in community events can help preserve cognitive function.

Depression and Anxiety

Untreated depression and chronic anxiety can impair cognitive abilities. Seeking therapy, practicing stress-reducing techniques, and addressing mental health concerns are essential for cognitive well-being.

Chronic Diseases

Chronic conditions like cardiovascular disease, respiratory disorders, and kidney disease can increase the risk of cognitive decline. Proper disease management and regular medical check-ups are important preventive measures.


Certain medications, such as benzodiazepines, anticholinergics, and sleep aids, have been associated with cognitive impairment. Consulting with healthcare professionals to review medications and explore alternatives when necessary is advisable.

Environmental Toxins

Exposure to environmental toxins like lead, mercury, and pesticides can contribute to cognitive decline. Minimizing exposure to these toxins through proper safety measures and avoiding contaminated environments is crucial.

Lack of Mental Stimulation

A sedentary mind can contribute to cognitive decline. Engaging in mentally stimulating activities, such as puzzles, reading, and learning new skills, helps maintain cognitive function.

Cardiovascular Health

Cardiovascular health is closely linked to brain health. Maintaining healthy cholesterol levels, managing blood pressure, and adopting heart-healthy habits contribute to optimal cognitive function.

Vitamin Deficiencies

Deficiencies in vitamins, particularly vitamin B12 and folate, have been associated with cognitive decline. Consuming a balanced diet or considering supplements, if necessary, can help prevent deficiencies.

Chronic Inflammation

Chronic inflammation, often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic periodontitis, can impact cognitive function. Managing inflammation through appropriate medical interventions and lifestyle modifications is essential.

Lack of Intellectual Engagement

Intellectual engagement and lifelong learning promote cognitive health. Engaging in intellectually stimulating activities, pursuing hobbies, and continuing education can help maintain cognitive function.

Cognitive decline is a multifactorial process influenced by various preventable causes. By addressing these causes through lifestyle modifications, healthy habits, and appropriate medical interventions, we can reduce their risk of cognitive decline and promote long-term cognitive health. By taking proactive steps to protect cognitive function is vital for overall well-being and maintaining a high quality of life.


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Ju YS, et al. (2014). Effects of Physical Activity on the Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease: The Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea Study. J Alzheimers Dis. 42(2):729-738.
Prince M, et al. (2016). World Alzheimer Report 2015: The Global Impact of Dementia. Alzheimer’s Disease International.
Livingston G, et al. (2017). Dementia Prevention, Intervention, and Care. Lancet. 390(10113):2673-2734.